Holy Land Information

The land of all nations

The Holy Land (also known as BiladAl-Sham in Arabic) is a term which refers to the geographical region of the Levant of no definite borders which has significant religious importance for Judaism, Christianity, Islam faiths. Currently, it comprises roughly the territory of Israel & Palestine and parts of Jordan and Lebanon. The importance of the land stems from the religious significance of Jerusalem, the holiest city to Judaism, the birthplace of Christianity, and the third-holiest to Islam. The land has been a destination for religious pilgrimages since biblical times.

Central Areas



Few cities inspire as much passion as Jerusalem (Al-Quds in Arabic & Yerushalayim in Hebrew,), rooted deep in the past and revered by three major religions (Christianity, Islam & Judaism) With its pleasant temperate climate, rich history & culture, fine upland setting, extraordinary historical sites. Internationally and according to the United Nations the city of Jerusalem is divided into East & West Jerusalem;-

East Jerusalem: Including the historical & holy Old city of Jerusalem. It is mostly Palestinian Arab side with the holy shrines of the three monotheistic religions crowded, colorful street markets, shopping district, and rich oriental cuisine and restaurants.




Old City of Jerusalem:

The Old City, on the eastern boundary, is where most of Jerusalem’s main holiest sites are found: the main Christianity site Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Via Dolorosa, Islamic site Dome of the Rock & Al Aqsa Mosque, and the Jewish site The Western (or Wailing) Wall, Cardo. David Street & Citadel. The city is surrounded with awesome 16th-century stone walls. The Old City is divided into Quarters, named after its four major communities in the 19th century: Muslim, Christian, Jewish, and Armenian, and preserving those sharp distinctions to this day.


Muslim Quarter

The Muslim Quarter largest and most populous of the four quarters and is situated in the northeastern corner of the Old City, extending from the Lions’ Gate in the east, to the Damascus Gate route in the west.

Christian Quarter

The Christian Quarter ‎‎is situated in the northwestern corner of the Old City, extending from the New Gate in the north, along the western wall of the Old City as far as the Jaffa Gate, along the Jaffa Gate – Western Wall route in the south, bordering on the Jewish and Armenian Quarters, as far as the Damascus Gate in the east, where it borders on the Muslim Quarter. The quarter contains the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of Christianity’s holiest places.

Armenian Quarter

The Armenian Quarteris the smallest of the four quarters of the Old City, although the Armenian people are Christians, the Armenian Quarter is distinct from the Christian Quarter..


Jewish Quarter

The Jewish Quarter, lies in the southeastern sector of the walled city, and stretches from the Zion Gate in the south, along the Armenian Quarter on the west, up to the Cardo in the north and extends to the Western Wall.




Gates of Jerusalem old City:

Damascus Gate: The modern gate was built in 1542 by the Ottoman ruler Suleiman the Magnificent. The Romans rebuilt a new gate at the time of Hadrian, in the second century AD. The Arabs call it “Bab el-Amud” – the “Gate of the Column.” This seems to preserve the memory of a column which stood just inside the gate during the Byzantine Period (A.D. 326-622). This column is represented on the sixth century mosaic map of Jerusalem which was found in the Jordanian city of Madaba the so called “Madaba Map.” The column has never been found, but the Roman gate can be seen today, due to excavations made during the British mandate. This was the northern entrance gate to the city at the time of the Crusades.

New Gate is the newest gate in Jerusalem’s Old City Walls, built in 1898 to provide direct access to the Christian Quarter.

Herod’s Gate: Gate of the flowers,‎) is a gate in the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. Its elevation is 755 meters above sea level. It adjoins the Muslim Quarter, and is a short distance to the east of the Damascus Gate. In proximity to the gate is an Arab neighborhood called Bab a-Zahara, a variation of the Arabic name for the gate.Opposite to the Salah EdIn shopping District.

Lions’ Gate‎, also known asSt. Stephen’s Gate or Sheep Gate) is located in the east wall, the entrance marks the beginning of the traditional Christian observance of the last walk of Jesus from prison to crucifixion, the Via Dolorosa. Near the gate’s crest are four figures of panthers, often mistaken for lions, two on the left and two on the right. They were placed there by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to celebrate the Ottoman defeat of the Mamluks in 1517.

Dung Gate, Gate of Silwan, Mograbi Gate,‎is situated near the southeast corner of the old city,The gate is the closest to the Western Wall and is a main passage for vehicles. It was originally much smaller, but was enlarged in 1952.

Zion Gate‎ is located in the south of the Old City, facing Mount Zion and Bethlehem / Hebron, the Zion Gate leads into the Armenian and Jewish Quarters. Zion Gate is also known as David’s Gate, because the tomb of King David is believed to be on Mt. Zion. The gate was built for Suleiman the Magnificent in 1540. Both pedestrians and vehicles use the gate, although maneuvering is difficult due to the L-shaped passageway. Until recently, there was two-way vehicular traffic passing through the gate. Today cars can exit but not enter the Old City via this gate.

Jaffa Gate, “Gate of the Friend is a stone portal in the historic walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. Jaffa Gate is the only one of the Old City gates positioned at a right angle to the wall. This could have been done as a defensive measure to slow down oncoming attackers.

Golden Gate, as it is called in Christian literature, is the Gate of Mercy. In Christian apocryphal texts, the gate was the scene of a meeting between the parents of Mary, so that Joachim and Anne Meeting at the Golden Gate became a standard subject in cycles depicting the Life of the Virgin. It is also said that Jesus passed through this gate on Palm Sunday. The gate is located in the middle of the eastern side of the wall.  The portal in this position was believed to have been used for ritual purposes in biblical times.

Ottoman SultanSuleiman I sealed off the Golden Gate in 1541, ant he Muslims also built a cemetery in front of the gate,

The Golden Gate is one of the few sealed gates in Jerusalem’s Old City Walls, along with the Hulda Gate.



Jerusalem Old City Walls

  • The Walls of Jerusalem‎ surround the area of the old city of Jerusalem (approx. 1 km²). The walls were built between the years 1538–1542, during the reign of the Ottoman empire in the region of Palestine, by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
  • The length of the wall is 4,018 km (2,496.6 mi), their average height is 12 meters (39.37 feet) and the average thickness of walls is 2.5 meters (8.2 feet). The walls also contain 34 watchtowers and 8 gates.



  • The walls of Jerusalem, which were built originally to protect the borders of the city against intrusions starting with Hezekiah fortifying the city Assyrian king, mainly serve as an attraction for tourists since it ceased to serve as a means of protection for the city.




Holy Sites& Attractions

Mt. Of Olives

The Mt. of Olives is located east of Jerusalem, across the Kidron Valley. It offers a magnificent view of the Old City and a striking panorama as far as the Dead Sea and the mountains of Moab in the East. The Mt. of Olives is associated with some of the most important events in Jesus’ life. Here, Jesus ascended to Heaven (Chapel of Ascension), foretold the destruction Jerusalem, taught his disciples the Lord’s Prayer (Pater Noster), and wept over Jerusalem on his way to the Holy City on Palm Sunday (Church of Dominus Flevit). The Russian Orthodox Church of St. Mary Magdalene, with its striking onion-shaped spires is also located on the Mt. of Olives. The Church of All Nations (also known as the Basilica of Agony) is so named because its construction in 1924 was financed by twelve different countries. It was on this mount that Jesus stood when he wept over Jerusalem.

Is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. At the foot of the mountain is the Gardens of Gethsemane where Jesus stayed in Jerusalem. The Mount of Olives is the site of many important Biblical events. Roman soldiers from the 10th Legion camped on the Mount during the Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD, which lead to the destruction of the city.

It is frequently mentioned in the New Testament. It is about 200 feet above the level of the city. The road from Jerusalem to Bethany runs as of old over this mount. It was on this mount that Jesus stood when he wept over Jerusalem.


The Church of All Nations( also known as the Basilica of Agony) is so named because its construction in 1924 was financed by twelve different countries. The church is built over 2 others, the Egeria dating from around 380, and a crusader basilica of around 1170. The Church is also notable for its Byzantine mosaic floor and the striking mosaic arches above the entrance. 

According to tradition, the Virgin Mary, who died in Jerusalem, was buried in the Kidron Valley. The present church was built by the Crusaders over the ruins of a Byzantine basilica. The site marks the traditional place of Virgin Mary’s tomb and her Assumption.   The garden was a spot favored by Jesus and it was here that He often came for His retreats and prayer. The church, known also as the Basilica of the Agony, in reference to the last night that Christ spent the most sorrowful hour of His passion.

Mt. Of Olives Pater Noster Church


Named for the “Our Father” prayer (Latin: Pater Noster), the Church of the Pater Noster stands on the traditional site in Jerusalem where Jesus taught his disciples how to pray. Constantine built a church over a cave here in 4th century, and this has been partially reconstructed. Plaques in the cloister bear the Lord’s Prayer in different languages. The church historian Eusebius (260-340) recorded that Constantine built a church over a cave on the Mount of Olives that had been linked with the Ascension. (Other Constantinian churches built over a cave are the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.) The church was built under the direction of Constantine’s mother St. Helen in the early 4th century and was seen by the Bordeaux pilgrim in 333. The pilgrim Egeria (384) was the first to refer to this church as Eleona, meaning “of olives.”


Mount of Olives Russian Ascension Church


The slender square tower of a convent of Russian nuns dominates the skyline of the Mount of Olives. The complex on the edge of et-Tur was built between 1870 and 1887, and the purpose of the tower was to permit pilgrims incapable of the walk to the Jordan to at least see the holy river. The excavation of the foundations brought to light two beautiful Armenian mosaics of the Byzantine period, which originally belonged to funerary chapels.




Via Dolorosa (Way of the Cross)


This is the traditional route of the path that Jesus followed carrying the cross from Antonia fortress, where he was condemned to death, to Calvary, where he was crucified. The event is commemorated at fourteen stations: two are located at Antonia, seven are located in the streets, and the last five are inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.


Station OneMark 15:  1-15 Jesus is condemned to death
Station TwoJohn 19:  13-17  Jesus takes up the Cross (Ecce Homo Arch)
Station ThreeJohn 1:  29   Jesus falls for the first time
Station FourLuke 2:  25-40John 19:  26-27   Jesus meets his Mother
Station FiveMark 15: 21   Simon of Cyrene helps Jesus carry his Cross
Station SixMatthew 25:  40   Veronica wipes the face of Jesus
Station SevenIsaiah 63:  9   Jesus falls the second time
Station Eight                             Matthew 7: 21 Jesus consoles the women of Jerusalem
Station Nine                         Psalm 37:  23-24 Jesus falls the third time
Station Ten                           John 19:  23-24 Jesus is stripped of his garments
Station Eleven                      John 19: 1 Jesus is nailed to the Cross
Station Twelve                       Matthew  27: 50 Jesus dies on the Cross
Station Thirteen                     John 19:  38-40 Jesus is taken down from the Cross
Station Fourteen                    Mark 15: 46-47 Jesus is laid in the Tomb




















Church of the Holy Sepulchre


Preserving the most holy moments of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, this church is the world’s holiest shrine to Christians. Situated in the Old City’s Christian Quarter, the church was first built in the fourth century by Constantine’s Mother Helena over the site of a Roman Pagan temple. The present structure is Crusader (12th century) and contains the last five Stations of the Cross. It also contains the Chapel of Golgotha where Jesus was crucified, the Sepulchre itself where Jesus was buried and from which he rose, and the Chapel of Mary Magdalena where the risen Christ first revealed himself.



Located just inside the gate variously called “Lions'”, “St. Stephen’s”, and “StMary’s”. Jerusalem residents utilized a number of rain-water reservoirs.during the Second Temple period, including the double pool called Bethesda. People with a variety of disabilities would linger by the Bethesda pool, for its waters were believed to have magical powers of restoration. Indeed, it is said that an angel flew over the pools once every 24 hours; whoever happened to be inside the water at that time would be miraculously healed!
According to one Christian tradition, the Virgin Mary was born in a cave near the Bethesda pool where her son Jesus would one day perform miracles of faith. The Crusaders believed that a grotto they discovered next to the reservoir ruins was Mary’s birthplace, the home of her parents Anne and Joachim. They incorporated the cave into a powerfully impressive church named for Jesus’ grandmother and Mary’s mother, Anne.
Today St. Anne’s belongs to the French government and is run by the White Fathers, an order of the Catholic church named for the color of their robes.
What first strikes the visitor to St Anne’s Church is its simplicity, both within the unadorned interior and on the clear clean lines of its facade. Yet there is also a sense of majesty, perhaps lent by the church’s stark cross-vaulted ceilings and giant pillars. You may note that the building leans slightly to the side.




Ecce Homo

Within the Old City Walls, near the Damascus Gate and it’s “sook” (bazaars), the Ecce Homo Convent brings you right away into the heart of Jerusalem. From the terraces which overlook the Dome of the Rock, the Western Wall and the Holy Sepulcher, the pilgrims enjoy a magnificent view over all the Old City and the hills surrounding Jerusalem.

The site of the Ecce Homo Convent contains important remains from Roman times. Since the Crusaders, Christian tradition has placed the beginning of the Via Dolorosa in this area. Here we recall Christ’s suffering at the hands of the Roman soldiers and his trial by Pontus Pilate. The name “Ecce Homo” refers to John 19:5


St. Peter in Gallicantu:“Golden Rooster”

Few structures combine the ancient with the new as successfully as the dazzling Church of St. Peter on the eastern slopes of Mount Zion. Erected in 1931 to commemorate Peter’s triple rejection of Jesus and his subsequent remorse, the church is an amazing blend of contemporary lines, primitive art, and antiquity. Beneath the church are a series of carved-out chambers. Since Catholic tradition positions the palace of Caiaphas on this very site, it logically follows that Jesus may have been imprisoned in one of these very same underground crypts.

A Byzantine shrine dedicated to Peter’s repentance was erected on this spot in the middle of the fifth century and was later destroyed by Moslem invaders. The chapel was rebuilt by the Crusaders and given a new name: St. Peter’s in Gallicantu. Galli-cantu means cock-crow in Latin and today a golden rooster protrudes prominently from the sanctuary roof.
Pilgrims to the church will notice that much of the writing is in French. St. Peter’s belongs to the Assumptionist Fathers, which is a French order established in 1887 and named for Mary’s Assumption to heaven.






The Garden Tomb


Located north the Old City’s Damascus Gate, the simplicity, beauty and peaceful atmosphere of the Garden tomb makes it a favorite spot for prayer and meditation. Some Christians find worshipping near the rock-hewn tomb helpful in reliving the crucifixion and resurrection experience. The Garden Tomb gives a clear picture of what the place of Crucifixion and burial must have looked like at the time of Jesus.


Dormition Abbey:


The Dormition Abbey is a massive structure that rises on Mount Zion, just outside the Zion Gate. A Catholic-Benedictine church built by the Germans at the beginning of the last century. According to Christian tradition, this is where Mary, Jesus’ mother, ascended to heaven.

The Cenacle “Upper Room”

From Latin cenaculum, also known as the “Upper Room”, is the term used for the site of The Last Supper. The word is a derivative of the Latin word cena, which means dinner.

In Christian tradition, based on Acts 1:13, the “Upper Room” was not only the site of the Last Supper (i.e. the Cenacle), but the usual place where the Apostles stayed in Jerusalem, and according to the Catholic Encyclopedia “the first Christian church“.

Thus the Cenacle is considered the site where many other events described in the New Testament took place, such as:


Bethany (al-Azarieh)

Located 2 miles east of Jerusalem on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, Bethany was the home of Lazarus and his two sisters, Mary and Martha, whom Jesus loved. The village has carried the name Lazarus since the fourth century and it is where Jesus performed the great miracle of raising Lazarus from the dead.

Tomb of King David

is the name given to a Jewish religious site on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, near the Hagia Maria Sion Abbey; the site has traditionally been viewed as the burial place of King David, It is situated in a ground floor corner of the remains of the former Hagia Zion, a Byzantine church; the upper floor of the same building has traditionally been viewed as the Cenacle of Jesus.


The Cardo in the Jewish Quarter was excavated for about 200 meters.  This portion dates to the time of Emperor Justinian in the first half of the 6th c. A.D.  An earlier portion of the Cardo was constructed in the Roman period beginning at the modern Damascus Gate in the north, but it didn’t stretch this far south until centuries later. The central street of the Cardo is 40 feet (12 m) wide and is lined on both sides with columns.  The total width of the street and shopping areas on either side is 70 feet (22 m), the equivalent of a 4-lane highway today.  This street was the main thoroughfare of Byzantine Jerusalem and served both residents and pilgrims.  Large churches flanked the Cardo in several places. 

The Kidron Valley (biblical name Jehoshophat)


It separates the Mt. of Olives from the Old City of Jerusalem. Jesus crossed the valley many times, including on the evening of Holy Thursday when Jesus went his disciples to Gethsemane. The ancient tombs of Absalom, Jehoshaphat, St. James, and St. Zacharias are located in the Kidron Valley. According to local tradition, the Kidron will be the site of the Last Judgment. This belief leads to the creation of cemeteries in the Kidron Valley for Christians, Muslims and Jews alike.


Al-Aqsa Mosque

Al-Aqsa Mosque,is an Islamic holy place in the Old City of Jerusalem. The site that includes the mosque (along with the Dome of the Rock) is also referred to as al-Haram ash-Sharif or “Sacred Noble Sanctuary”, Muslims believe thatProfitMuhammad was transported from the Sacred Mosque in Mecca to al-Aqsa during the Night Journey.

The al-Aqsa Mosque was originally a small prayer house built by the Rashidun caliph Umar, but was destroyed and rebuilt and expanded several times during history. Today, the Old City is under Israeli control, but the mosque remains under the administration of the Palestinian-led Islamic waqf.





The Dome of the Rock (al-Haram al-Sharif)


The Dome of the Rock (al-Haram al-Sharif) Situated in the Old City’s Muslim Quarter, this mosque is the third holiest shrine to Muslims after the Kaabah in Mecca and the Tomb of the Prophet in Medina, Saudi Arabia. It is also the oldest and most exquisite Muslim shrine in the world. Built at the end of the seventh century by the UmmayadCaliph.Abdulmalik Ben Marwan, the mosque has a rectangle octagon exterior and a spectacular gold-covered dome. The Dome of the Rock, with its colonnades and gardens,



Western Wall – “Kotel” “Al-Burāq”

The Western WallWailing Wall or Kotel( Al-Burāq, is located in the Old City of Jerusalem at the foot of the western side of theDome of the Rock /Temple Mount. It is a remnant of the ancient wall that surrounded the Jewish Temple and is one of the most sacred sites in Judaism.

It has been a site for Jewish prayer and pilgrimage for centuries, the earliest source mentioning Jewish attachment to the site dating from the 4th century. The wall became a source of friction between the Jewish community and the Muslim religious leadership, who were worried that the wall was being used to further Jewish nationalistic claims to the Temple Mount and Jerusalem.

Tower of David

The Tower of David is an ancient citadel located near the Jaffa Gate entrance to the Old City of Jerusalem. Built to strengthen a strategically weak point in the Old City’s defenses, the citadel was constructed during the second century BC and subsequently destroyed and rebuilt by, in succession, the Christian, Muslim, Mamluk, and Ottoman conquerors of Jerusalem. It contains important archeological finds dating back 2,700 years, and is a popular venue for benefit events, craft shows, concerts, and sound-and-light performances.

West Jerusalem:

The larger part of the city, including its shopping and leisure district is vibrant, Jewish side, characterized by broad avenues, busy streets and squares, cafes, restaurants and lively nightlife.

The Church of visitation EinKarem

This church, beautifully located on the slopes of a rocky hill and shaded by cypresses, is also known as the Church of the Magnificat (Mary’s song in Luke 1:46-55), in commemoration of the answer Mary gave her cousin Elizabeth in the Gospel episode of the Visitation. Her hymn to the glory of the Lord is inscribed in 41 languages on one wall of the church.

The present basilica is a Franciscan church designed by the Italian architect Antonio Barluzzi and built between 1938 and 1955. The Franciscan Order had acquired the land as early as the second half of the 17th century

In front of the Church of the Visitation, which is entered through an artistic iron gate, is a low portico topped by a graceful bell tower. This building consists of two parts. In the Upper Church religious services are held, while in the Crypt is to be found a cave in which a miraculous spring broke forth at the exact moment when Elizabeth welcomed the Virgin.

Among other curiosities, it is worth mentioning a stone against one wall, which bears the imprint of a young boy’s body. Traditionally, it is believed that the infant John left this imprint, when Elizabeth hid him from Herod’s soldiers at the time of the slaughter of the Innocents.


Catholic – Franciscan Order. Located in the Jerusalem suburb of EinKarem

Little remains of the Byzantine sanctuary which once commemorated the birth of John the Baptist. However, unlike other houses of worship constructed over holy sites in Jerusalem, it was not destroyed by seventh-century Persian or Moslem invaders. Instead, this church was apparently ravaged 200 years earlier, during an uprising of Israel’s Samaritans. Persecuted by the Byzantines, the Samaritans rebelled on several occasions by massacring Christians at prayer and devastating their chapels.

The present building, located in the midst of the village, dates from 1674, when the Franciscans, aided by the Spanish monarchy, built it on the ruins of its predecessors. Crossing the threshold, we seem to step into Spain. The paintings are by Spanish artists. The blue and white tiles almost sing of Spain. Further work on the church was carried out in the nineteenth century, again with Spanish assistance. This included a new marble altar for the grotto, donated by Queen Isabella II of Spain.

The most revered site in the church is the grotto. Believed to be part of the home in which John the Baptist was born to Zechariah and Elizabeth, and perhaps even the site of his birth, it was incorporated into the church’s left apse.


Jericho – in 2010 marked 10000 years of history

Jericho is a green oasis in the Jordan Valley some 30 Km east of Jerusalem, 7 km west of the River Jordan, 10 Km north of the Dead Sea It lies some 260 meters below sea level making it the lowest town in earth. Jericho is the lowest permanently inhabited site on earth



The town of Jericho is the oldest continuously inhabited town in the world dating back some 10,000 years. Jericho and its surrounding areas are filled with religious, archeological, and natural treasures. Just outside Jericho, the adventurous and eco-loving travelers can enjoy a hike in Wadi Quilt and visit the Church of St. George in Kosiba. Inside Jericho, visitors can tour the ancient remains of Hisham Palace and Tel Esultan (ancient Jericho). Overlooking Jericho is the Mount of Temptation. Take the cable car ride to the summit and enjoy the beautiful panorama of Jericho and the desert from the serenity on the mount.



Ancient Jericho (Tell al-Sultan)
The ancient city of Jericho is located 2 km from the northwestern outskirts of Jericho. Situated on a mound overlooking the Jericho oasis, excavations at Tell al-Sultan uncovered 23 layers of ancient civilizations, dating back to 9000 BC. Many structures are visible, including the oldest known stairs in the world, the oldest wall, and the massive defense tower, dating back to 7000 BC.

Hisham’s Palace
An Islamic architecture, the ruins of this impressive desert palacethat was destroyed by an earthquake in the eighth centurythe residence of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham (724-743 AD) is a complex of royal buildings, mosques, baths, and colonnaded courts. There are also spectacular mosaic floors can be seen including the “Tree of Life” mosaic, got a rare glimpse at what archaeologists here say is the largest carpet mosaic in the Middle East, measuring nearly 900 square meters (9,700 square feet)..

Quarantal – Monastery of Temptation
The summit of Mt.Temptation, rising to a height of 350 meters above sea level and commanding a magnificent view of the Jordan Valley, is the site where Jesus spent forty days and nights fasting and meditating during the temptation of Satan ”Devil”. A monastery was built in the sixth century over the cave where Christ stayed. The path leading to Deir Quruntel is very steep and difficult to climb, but is well worth the walk. The nearly 30-40 caves on the eastern slopes of the mountain have been inhabited by monks and hermits since the early days of Christianity.



Shahwan’s Synagogue
A track leading into a clump of trees, and within the property of the Shahwan family can be seen the foundations and mosaic floor of a synagogue discovered in 1936. The date of the construction is believed to be the 8th cent and it is an interesting item for the history of the Jews at that time.

Nabi Mousa
The maqam of Nabi Mousa is considered a holy place for Muslims because it houses the grave of Prophet Moses according to local tradition. Moses is recognized by Muslims as one of the great prophets of Islam. The bituminous rocks around the shrine add to its mystique and sanctity since they are flammable. This remarkable property is due to their mineral content of qatraan or tar, with its distinctive smell. Pilgrims used the stones as fuel for warmth and cooking.

The tomb has been the site of annual pilgrimage festival or mawsim at least since the time of the great Muslim leader Salah Al Din (Saladin) who liberated Jerusalem from the Crusaders in the twelfth century AD. Muslims believe that Moses is buried here, although, according to the Old Testament (Deuteronomy 34), Moses never entered Palestine, the ”Promised Land”, but rather died at Mount Nebo in modern-day Jordan.

The main body of the present shrine-the mosque, minaret, and some of the rooms – was completed in AD 1269 during the reign of the Mamluk Sultan, Al ThaherBaybars who reigned from AD 1260 to 1277. The mawsim of NabiMousa

Good Samaritan Inn – Al-Khan al-Ahmar
Located 10km east of Jerusalem, on the main road to Jericho, al-Khan al-Ahmar is a 16th century structure where travelers on this ancient trade route stopped to rest. On the other side of the road are the remains of St. Euthymius Church, built in the fifth century to commemorate Jesus’ famous proverb of the Good Samaritan.






St. George’s Monastery & WadiQelt
Wadi Qelt is a natural rift in the hills with high, pure rock walls, extending 45km between Jerusalem and Jericho. Hermits have inhabited the Wadi since the third century. Today, it is a wonderful place for hiking tours, especially in winter. The Monastery of St. George, Deir al-Qelt, is carved out of the rock and clings to the canyon walls impressively. Built in the fifth century, the monastery was destroyed during the Persian invasion of Palestine. Most of the present monastery dates back to the 1901 restoration by the Greek Orthodox Church.

Modern Jericho: Telefrique, Casino, ,
The Téléphérique cable cars offer visitors a short but scenic ride up the Mount of Temptation. The cars, which drop off passengers just a few hundred feet from the Greek Orthodox Monastery of Temptation, save tourists from the traditionally long – walk up to the mount.


The center is comprised of a state of the art cable car linking Tel Jericho to the Mount of Temptation in less than five minutes. The cable is 1330 meters long from the base station to the top station in the mountain. There are 12 cabins and each cabin takes 8 persons with a carrying capacity of 625 persons per hour. Cabin number two takes the wheel chair. he cabins travel over Jericho oasis and the banana fields and half way through the journey to the Mount of Temptation there is a brief stopover to allow the visitors to take pictures and enjoy the panoramic view of Jericho.The Monastery is few minutes’ walk from the top station and the opening hours are posted at the main entrance of the Monastery and at various locations in the base station.

Jericho Casino (currently Seized)
In the magical desert setting of Jericho and the Dead Sea is the exciting and luxurious Oasis, a new, world-class casino just 25 minutes from Jerusalem. This exquisite casino (Currently Seized).



It is located about 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of Jerusalem. It is a modern city and is considered the unofficial economical capital of Palestine. Currently, Ramallah’s cultural scene is both vibrant and diverse. Dozen of museums, cultural centers and theatres. Ramallah restaurant scene showcases some of Palestine’s finest restaurants, hotels and cafes.

Ramallah is generally considered the most affluent and cultural as well as the most liberal, of all Palestinian cities, and is home to a number of popular Palestinian activists, poets, artists, and musicians and traditional dancers (Dabka) performances.

Ein Kenya Nature Reserve

A beautiful nature reserve 7-km northwest of Ramallah, Ein Kenya is named after its natural springs. A variety of wild plants, birds, and animals make Ein Kenya a great place for walks, picnics and hiking


is a Palestinian village in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate in the central West Bank, located 8 kilometers (5 mi) north of Ramallah and 23 kilometers (14 mi) north of Jerusalem. A village of about 1,400 people, Jifna has retained a Christian majority since the 6th century CE. Its total land area consists of 6,015 dunams, of which 420 are designated as built-up areas, most of the remainder being covered with olive, fig and apricot groves. Jifna has local traditions and legends relating to the Holy Family, and to the village water-spring. It is also locally known for its apricot harvest festival; each year, during the late Spring period, hundreds travel to the village to harvest the fruit during its brief season

St. George’s Church in Jifna was built in the 6th century CE, but fell into disrepair and was not rebuilt until the arrival of the Crusaders in the late 10th century. However, it again fell into ruin after the Crusaders were driven out by the Ayyubids. In modern times, the ruins of St. George’s Church have become a tourist attraction. During the period of Ottoman control in Palestine the tower of an ancient Roman structure in Jifna became the location of a jail house.



is a Palestinian village in the West Bank, located 35 kilometers North of the city of Jerusalem and 12 kilometers Northeast of Ramallah in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate. The village is at an elevation of 850 meters. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the village had a population of 1,452 inhabitants in 2007. Taybeh is a Christian village, with Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Melkite Eastern Catholic, Protestants and Evangelicals.


Taybeh Beer

The company was co-founded by Nadim Khoury and David Khoury, and their father Canaan the year after the Oslo Accords were signed in 1993.

By 2005 the company was only able to produce 300 cases a week locally due to conflict with Israel. Taybeh beer sold in Europe is brewed and bottled in Belgium with the licence held in Germany.

In 2005, an Oktoberfest style Taybeh Beer Festival was launched. The annual two-day Beer Festival starts in the beginning of October.

Taybeh Brewing Company was highlighted in the January/February 2010 Issue of the fine beverage publication

There are four varieties of Taybeh Beer: Golden, Light, Amber, and Dark. In 2007, a new non-alcoholic beer variety is to be launched specifically for the local Palestinian Muslim market. The original brand was Taybeh Beer Golden. The Taybeh Beer Dark and Taybeh Beer Light were introduced for the 2000 celebrations in the Holy Land


Is an ancient port city believed to be one of the oldest in the world. Jaffa and Haifa ports were considered to be the major ports in Palestine and both were publicly owned and operated by the Government of Palestine.

Before WW II, Jaffa’s port was underdeveloped, and because of its treacherous sea ships often had to continue sailing north to Haifa. Jaffa Hill) rises to a height of 40 meters (130 ft) and offers a commanding view of the coastline; hence its strategic importance in military history. The accumulation of debris and landfill over the centuries made the hill even higher. Archaeological evidence shows that Jaffa was inhabited some 7,500 years BCE.[2] Jaffa’s natural harbor has been in use since the Bronze Ag


St. Peter’s Church, Jaffa

A Franciscan Church was built in 1654 in dedication to Saint Peter over a medieval citadel that was erected by Frederick II and restored by Louis IX of France at the beginning of the second half of the thirteenth century. However, in the late eighteenth century the church was twice destroyed and consequently twice rebuilt. The current structure was built between 1888 and 1894 and most recently renovated in 1903. Masses are conducted in deferent languages.


Is a city of 87,000 residents located on the central coast of Israel. It is part of the Tel Aviv District Herzliya covers an area of 26 km². Within its municipal boundaries is Herzliya Pituah, one of Israel’s most upscale neighborhoods, home to many ambassadors and foreign diplomats. Herzliya, named after Theodor Herzl, was founded in 1924 as a semi-cooperative farming community. The Herzliya Marina was built in the 1970s. The city has a small airport, three shopping malls (Arena Mall, Seven Stars Mall and the Outlet), movie theaters, museums, cultural centers and a stadium.




South Areas


The Birth Place of Christ, the ancient town of Bethlehem holds a connection with Christians from all around the World. While small in size and population, the Town of Bethlehem and its surroundings have lots to offer to any visitor or tourists. At the heart of the town lies the Church of the Nativity. Inside the church is the Grotto of the nativity marking the spot where Jesus was born. 

The old cores of the Bethlehem have been beautifully restored and renovated offering beautiful and enriching walking tours throughout the city. The many cultural centers in and around Bethlehem continue to hold regular musical and cultural events throughout the year. 

Bethlehem’s Gastronomy and dining out options are also diverse and cater to almost any cravings. There are many restaurants and cafes throughout the town. Whether you are seeking traditional Palestinian cuisines or opt for something different there are also many restaurants serving Italian, French and Chinese cuisines. Within the surrounding of Bethlehem are the towns of Beit jala and Beit Sahour which also have lots of other options to offer.

Church Of Nativity

Is the oldest Christian church in the world. During the Persian invasion in 614 AD, while all of the other Constantan built churches were being razed to the ground this Church was spared. Both the interior and exterior on the Church were renovated by Emperor Justinian in the early part of the 6th century, and then once again restored by the Crusaders. In 1333 AD the Franciscans were allowed to reside and to pray in the Church. the Church of the Nativity together with the Holy Sepulcher Church are regarded as Status Quo Churches and hence, are jointly administrated by the Franciscans (Latins) the Greeks and the Armenian Orthodox Communities.

The forty – four columns on either side of the Church are eighteen feet high and are from the Justinian period. As one looks up on the two sidewalls, one can see the remains of the gold mosaics from the Crusader period. In the foreground is the main altar of the Greek Orthodox community. It was built over the actual cave or grotto where the birth of Jesus took place. The steps leading down to the grotto from the entrance on the right was the original entrance. Latter on, a second set of stairs were built on the left which is the present exit.

The Church on the “Milk Grotto”

In Bethlehem the sacred area around the Nativity Grotto has been the focal point of all tradition. Nevertheless in Bethlehem a small Chapel has been for long centuries a devotional site. The “Milk Grotto” over which today a small Chapel rise, is frequently visited by local women, Christians and Moslems alike, to ask for the intercession of V. Mary. Mother of Jesus. A legend recalls how some Mary spilt some milk while breast feeding baby Jesus and this is the reason for the “white” stone of the cave. A tradition going back to the VII century located at this site the burial place of the innocent victims killed by Herod the Great after the birth of Jesus.

The Shepherds Field

Leaving Bethlehem to the plains underneath you can see the site where tradition indicates the spot where “Shepherds kept watch” on that night when Christ was born. The site is situated about 600 m from the town in the village of Beit Sahur. The Calendar of Jerusalem (VII-VIII cent.) says that to the east of Bethlehem was a monastery called Poemenium (of the flock) where the angel appeared to the shepherds. The Abbot Daniel (1106) calls the place Agia Pimina (holy pasture) and Peter the Deacon (1137) calls the church Ad Pastores, which had a grotto and an altar, while Phocas (1177) mentions a monastery too.

Solomon’s Pools

Solomon’s Pools are located about 5 miles southwest of Bethlehem. They are named after the Biblical Solomon, probably because of his mention in Ecclesiastes 2.6. However the pools of more recent evidence were probably the work of the Romans under Herod the Great to provide source water for the aqueduct built to supply water to Bethlehem and to Jerusalem. These source pools consist three open cisterns, each at different elevations, fed from an underground spring.

Wadi Artas

Wadi Artas is a fine example of the fertility of Palestinian valleys. Its ideal landscape calls to mind the paradise lost, said to have been King Solomon’s garden, which was said to have inspired The Song of Songs, or Song of Solomon, in the Old Testament “A garden inclosed is my sister, my spouse. A spring shut up, a fountain sealed. Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits;” (Song of Solomon 4:12-13). The name Artas, more recent, is derived from the Latin hortus, or “garden”. Nowadays, the Convent of the Sisters of Our Lady of the Garden and the Convent Hortus Conclusus symbolically associate the image of Mary with her virginity and fertility.





Built in a circular shape on top of a hill 6km southeast of Bethlehem, this fortress includes the remains of a huge palace built by King Herod for his wife in 37 BC. The palace contained luxurious, round walled buildings, fortified chambers, and baths and terraced gardens. Fort Herodion hill dominates the landscape and offers an impressive view of the Dead Sea.


Rachel’s Tomb – Belal’s Mosque

This small building marks the traditional Tomb of Rachel, Jacob’s wife. It is considered holy to Christians, Muslims, and Jews. The present sanctuary and mosque were built during the Ottoman period and are situated on the Jerusalem-Hebron Road near the northern entrance of Bethlehem.


St. Saba Monastery

A drive of about 6 kilometers east of Shepherd’s Field down a winding road takes you to the Greek Orthodox Monastery of Mar Saba. Built into a cliff, it has a spectacular view overlooking the gorge of the Kidron Valley and was part of the grand tour of Palestine during the 19th century. The founder, St. Saba, came from Cappadocia in the fifth century. There are legends about St. Saba having lived in a cave with a lion for many years. St. Saba died at age 94, and his corpse is still preserved in the Church at the monastery. The monastery has 110 rooms, though today there are only a few monks residing in it. The monks are friendly and hospitable, but long-established tradition prevents the entry of women, who must enjoy the scenery from outside.


St. Theodosius Monastery

Built by Theodosius in 500 AD, the monastery is located east of the historic village of Ubediyyeh 12km east of Bethlehem. A white-walled cave marks the burial site of St. Theodosius. Tradition has it that the wise men rested here after God warned them in a dream that they should not return to Herod.


The Mosque of Omar

Located at the corner of Paul VI Street and Manger Square, the mosque was built in honour of the second Caliph, Omar Ibn al-Khattab. A companion of the Prophet Mohammed and his father-in-law, he entered Bethlehem after taking Jerusalem and prayed in the southern aisle of the Basilica of the Nativity. However, he guaranteed that the Basilica would remain a Christian place of worship in the Pact of Omar, which stipulated that Muslims would be allowed to pray here only individually and which prohibited calling for prayer (al-Adan) from the church walls.           


Al Khalil, as Hebron is called in Arabic, means “The Friend of God”. In ancient times it was known as Mamre and KirjathArba, “The Town of four” because of its position on four hills. Situated at an altitude of 3,000 feet, Hebron has been continuously settled for 5,000 years. It is regarded as holy by Muslims, Christians and Jews alike because the prophet Abraham is buried there.



The ancient town of Hebron is considered to be one of the oldest towns in Palestine, and indeed has some claim to being among the oldest continuously inhabited places on earth. The Souq (market) with its arched roofs and maze of alleys is worth exploring. The shops and stall sell everything from pottery, olivewood and glass to fresh and dried fruits. The grapes produced here are converted into jam and a kind of molasses and the traditional craft of glass and pottery making and tanning have been adapted to small scale factory

Al Abraham Mosque

The Cave of the Patriarchs or the Cave of Machpelah is a series of subterranean caves located in a complex called by Muslims the Sanctuary of Abraham or Ibrahimi Mosque  The name is either a reference to the layout of the burial chamber, or alternatively refers to the biblical couples, i.e.: cave of the tombs of couples. Home to the Ibrahimi Mosque and famous for glass blowing, ceramics, and many other industries.

Al-Haram is a formidable rectangular building, which looks like a fortress. The construction of the walls and pavement is the work of King Herod. Inside, a vaulted Crusader church has been turned into a mosque housing the tomb of the prophets and their wives.

Inside the mosque is the Mihrab made of multi-colored marble and fine mosaics. The carved walnut Minbar, or pulpit next to it is a masterpiece of intricate workmanship. Another fine pulpit brought by Salah Ad-Din from Egypt, stands near the praying alcove.    

Additional Crusader and Mamluk structures combine to make al-Haram one of the most impressive ancient monuments in Palestine. There are six tombs in the Mosque of Abraham, which are said to stand directly above the graves of the prophets and their wives buried in the Cave of el-Anbia. 



Dead Sea

Is a salt lake between the Palestine and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. At 420 metres (1,378 ft) below sea level, its shores are the lowest point on the surface of the Earth that are on dry land. At 330 m deep (1,083 feet), the Dead Sea is the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. It is also the world’s second saltiest body of water, after Lake Asal in Djibouti. With 30 percent salinity, it is 8.6 times saltier than the ocean. It is nine times saltier than the Mediterranean Sea.

The Dead Sea is 67 kilometres (42 mi) long and 18 kilometres (11 mi) wide at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan Rift Valley, and its main tributary is theJordan River.

The region’s climate and the unique conditions created by its low elevation have made it a popular center for several types of therapies through treatments that exploits black mineral mud of the Dead Sea.


Ein Gedi(Goat-kid Springs)

Is an oasis located west of the Dead Sea, close to Masada and the caves of Qumran. It is known for its caves, springs, and its rich diversity of flora and fauna. EinGedi is mentioned several times in biblical writings.


Ein Feshkha  Cliff springs

Ein Feshkha (Einot Tzukim) is a nature reserve on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, about three kilometers south of Qumran. It is named for a spring of brackish water in the area. The Ein Feshkha nature reserve consists of an open reserve with pools of mineral water for bathing surrounded by high foliage and another section that is closed to visitors to protect the native flora and fauna

Qumran(Dead Sea Scrolls)

Is an archaeological site in the West Bank. It is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, Since the discovery from 1947 to 1956 of nearly 900 scrolls in various conditions, mostly written on parchment, with others on papyrus and Cisterns,

The Dead Sea Scrolls constitute one of the major archeological discoveries of the 20th century. They incorporate the earliest known manuscripts of the Bible as well as other important historical documents describing the life of the Essene community. At the same time, they are a main source for the study of the history of Palestine: the Dead Sea Scrolls have shed light on Judaism and the roots of Christianity on the shore of the Dead Sea.


Jewish ritual baths, and cemeteries have been found, along with a dining or assembly room and debris from an upper story alleged by some to have been a scriptorium as well as pottery kilns and a tower. The scrolls were found in a series of eleven caves


The summit of Masada sits 190 feet (59 m) above sea level and about 1500 feet (470 m) above the level of the Dead Sea.  The mountain itself is 1950 feet (610 m) long, 650 feet (200 m) wide, 4250 feet (1330 m) in circumference, and encompasses 23 acres.  The “Snake Path” climbs 900 feet (280 m) in elevation.  From the west, the difference in height is 225 feet (70 m). Fifteen long storerooms kept essential provisions for time of siege. Herod filled with them with food and weapons. Each storeroom held a different commodity.  This was attested by different storage jars and inscriptions on jars in rooms.  Wine bottles sent to Herod from Italy were found.

1st Century Synagogue

This synagogue was found in the first season of Yadin’s excavations.  No Second Temple period  synagogues were known at the time. Many coins from the Jewish Revolt were found here. An ostracon was found on the floor with inscription, “priestly tithe.” The back room served as a genizah.

Herod’s Bathhouse

Herod had several private bathhouses built at Masada.  The caldarium depicted here had a heavy floor suspended on 200 pillars.   Outside the room a furnace would sent hot air under the floor.  When water was placed on the floor, steam was created.  Pipes were built into the walls to help to heat the room. 

Negev Bedouin  Badū an-Naqab “Joe Alone Center”

The Negev Bedouin are traditionally pastoral semi-nomadic Arab tribes indigenous to the Negev region of the country, who hold close ties to the Bedouin of the Sinai Peninsula. The forced alteration of their traditional lifestyle has led to sedentarisation

Timna park

The Timna Valley is located in southern Israel in the south western Arabah, approximately 30 km (18.6 mi) north of the Gulf of Aqaba and the town of Eilat. The area is rich in copper ore, and has been actively mined by humans since the 6th millennium BCE

Tel Beer Sheva

Tel Arad

Lotan birds

Eilat (Um Rashrash)

a popular resort, located at the northern tip of the Red Sea, The city is adjacent to the Egyptian village of Taba to the south, the Jordanian port city of Aqaba to the east, and within sight of Saudi Arabia to the south-east, across the gulf. Eilat’s desert climate is moderated by proximity to a warm sea. Temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in summer, and 21 °C (70 °F) in winter, while water temperatures range between 20 and 26 °C (68 and 79 °F). The city’s beaches, nightlife and desert landscapes make it a popular destination for domestic and international tourism.


Eilat offers a wide range of accommodations, from hostels and luxury hotels to Bedouin hospitality, to water sports, to Birdwatching, to oral World Underwater Observatory. The city which is almost 350 Km from Jerusalem can be reached by Land, See or Air.

Eilat offers a wide range of accommodations – from hostels to luxury hotels – as well as many unique attractions and recreational options.

  • Bedouin hospitality.
  • Birdwatching and ringing station: Eilat is located on the main migration route between Africa and Europe.
  • Camel tours.
  • Coral Beach Nature Reserve, an underwater marine reserve of tropical marine flora and fauna.
  • Coral World Underwater Observatory – allows visitors to view marine life in its own habitat. The park, located at the southern tip of Coral Beach, has aquariums, a museum, simulation rides, and shark, turtle and stingray tanks.
  • Diving: Skin and SCUBA diving, with equipment for hire on or near all major beaches. Scuba diving equipment rental and compressed air are available from a number of diving clubs and schools open all year round.
  • Dolphin Reef, offering visitors an opportunity to swim and interact with dolphins, is also a marine biology and research station.
  • Free fall parachuting.
  • Hai-Bar Yotvata Nature Reserve, established in the 1960s to conserve endangered species, including Biblical animals, from this and similar regions. The reserve has a Visitors Center, care and treatment enclosures, and large open area where desert animals are acclimated before re-introduction into the wild. Hai-Bar efforts have successfully re-introduced the Asian Wild Ass, or Onager, into the Negev.




Gaza’s position on the crossroads between Asia and Africa has ensured it a history as troubled as it is long. Since the Canaanite period, it has been fought over, invaded and occupied by nearly all the powers that have marched across the Middle East. Aside from all of this, Gaza has one of the most beautiful beaches and extremely friendly locals. There are numerous Churches and sites to see such as Qasr Al Basha (Napoleon’s Citadel), the Greek Orthodox Church and the Great Mosque





North Areas



Nablus City

Nablus also known as the uncrowned Queen of Palestine is situated some 60 km north of Jerusalem between Mount Ebal and Mount Garizim. As one of Palestine’s largest cities, Nablus has lots to offer. Famous of its sweets, traditional olive oil soap and busy markets, Nablus is also home to many of Palestine’s industries and commerce. Among the main attractions in Nablus are Jacob’s Well and the Old City of Nablus. The areas in and around Nablus are filled with sites to visit. The Palestinian village of Sebastia lies some 12 km north of Nablus. Other major Palestinian cities such as Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilya are also near Nablus in the north of the country.




Nablus’ rich history lies in its Old City with its distinct stone facades, beautiful architecture, narrow streets and old urban spaces. The population of the old city today number around 20,000. There are two churches, twelve mosques and a Samaritan synagogue in around the densely populated residential areas


o   Jacob’s Well


The 35 meter deep well stands in the land that Jacob bought from Hanor for a “hundred pieces of silver” (Genesis 33:19). It is also here that Jesus asked a Samaritan woman to draw water for him to drink. The well has been an object of pilgrimages since then. The first church built on this site dates back to the end of the 4th century. The well inside the church, forms the centerpiece of the crypt beneath the high altar. Then back in the 12th century, the Crusaders constructed a new church on the Byzantine foundations. Today, the existing church which lies some six meters below the present ground level is owned by the Orthodox Church.

o   Famous Turkish bath

The oldest working Turkish  Baths in the country happens to be in the  heart  of   Nablus, Al-Shifabath is on  al-Nasir St, and  al-Hana  is  in Harat al-yasmena . Both  built  during  the  Turkish  era about   200  years  ago . It  uses  the  four  room system , that   is , the  change  room , cold  room, warm  room and  hot room  (Saunas). It  also hasa big reception hall whose height is 18 meters.



Mt of Gerzim / Samaritans
Standing at 881m above sea level, Mt. Gerzim offers a magnificent panoramic view of Nablus and the surrounding area. Ancient ruins at the summit include an octagonal church built by Zeno in the fifth century, and the remains of a mosque and a castle dating back to the time of Salah ad-Din. A small Samaritan community, inhabiting the plateau below the summit for the past 2500 years, holds Mt. Gerzim as sacred. Believing that Mt. Gerzim fitted Abraham’s description better than Mt. Moriah; the Samaritans built a rival temple to the one in Jerusalem. Though the temple has long been destroyed, the Samaritans still point out a rock that they believe is the place where Abraham prepared to sacrifice Isaac.

The Olive Oil Soap Factories
It is easy to understand, after a trip around the north of the West Bank, why the industry based on olive oil, especially soap-making, was established in Nablus. Despite the development of the modern cosmetic industry, Nablus soap is still widely popular in the Arab world because of its natural properties.
Today, many factories are active and open to the public. A visit is particularly interesting and allows every secret of the fabrication of this pure soap to be seen, before the truly artistic drying process.


Neopolis – Roman City Ruins

The modern name of Nablus is a corruption of the Greek name. ‘Neopolis’, the new city, which was founded in 72 AD by the Flavian Emperors. The Roman city was built on the northern slope of Mount Gerizim, ca. two km west of Tell Balata. The city developed as a major center in during the second century AD.

Major building projects were launched, including the hippodrome, the theatre and other public buildings. The Roman temple of Zeus was erected on Mount Gerizim. In some places excavations have revealed portions of these roman buildings and in some places these are still visible



Around 12 km northwest of Nablus up on the scenic slopes of the Nablus hills stands the village of Sabastya, the site of the ancient city of Samaria. On top of the hill the remains of an Iron Age City were found. Inside the village lies a Crusader’s Church (12 century), which was converted into a mosque with two tomb chambers. The head of John the Baptist is believed to be buried here.


The ancient royal city of Sebastia, or Samaria, is one of the largest archeological sites in Palestine. Located 12km northwest of Nablus, the ruins of ancient Sebastia extend on a hill overlooking the present village of Sebastia.

Excavations at Sebastia indicate that it was first inhabited during the Chalcolithic period in 4000 BC. It did not gain political importance, however, until King Omari built his royal city there and named it Samaria.The visible remains at ancient Sebastia include Roman tombs, a Hellenistic tower, a Severan basilica, and Herodion gate towers at the entrance of a colonnaded street with 6000 columns on both sides. According to religious tradition, the head of John the Baptist was found in Sebastia and a Crusader church, later converted to a mosque, was built in his honor.

The Village

In the village of Sebastia one can see the remains of the fine church or sanctuary of St. John the Baptist, built by the Crusaders in 1165 on the ruins of a Byzantine basilica, in the crypt of which were the relics of the Precursor and the relics of the prophets, Eliseus and Abdias. The only remains of the 12th century building are the apse, a few large pieces of the wall, together with a considerable portion of the western façade and a few clusters of pillars. The presbytery and the apse were transformed into a mosque called Nebi Yahya. 


Located in the northern part of Palestine, lies on the border of the Samarian Hills. It served as a transit station on the trade road. Jenin is the ancient En-gannim of the Bible and os the same village referred to as Ginaea. The Romans were the first to name the city of Jenin in the 16th century. The name was derived from EinGanim, meaning the spring of Ganim and referring the region’s plentiful springs. It was 4km from Jenin, at eh village of Burqin, where Jesus cured 10 lepers residing in a cave at the edge of the village.

Jenin was occupied by the Crusaders in 1103 and then liberated by the Muslim leader Salah Din Al- Ayyoubi in 1187 during the famous battle of Hitteen.


Burqin Church

The village of Burqin is located 3km west of Jenin. The church lies on the northern slope of the hill overlooking Wadi Burqin. The church is still used by Christian Greek Orthodox community of the village. Tradition suggests that Jesus, on his way to Jerusalem, passed by the village and miraculously healed the lepers there.


This delightful small church has been restored several times through the centuries. The first church was in the cave where the miracle took place, while during the 6th – 9th century it was extended in front of the cave. The church was then rebuilt during the 12th century and enclosed by a wall. The present church comprises the cave and the new hall and has built during the 18th century


Umm Al-Rihan Forest

Umm Al-Rihan Forest is located in the extreme of the West Bank, northwest of Jenin, bordering the Green Line that divides Israel from the Palestinian territories.

The site is the main and the biggest natural forest remaining in the West Bank that represents the Mediterranean bio-geographical ecosystem. Moreover this site is considered as one of the main bird areas in the West Bank, mainly for migratory birds of which some pass in thousands yearly. This nature reserve is considered of high importance for wild genetic resources, in Palestine particularly the wild original species of barley, wheat, and fruit trees.




Nazareth is situated on the Nazareth Ridge some 1300 feet above sea level. It is 16 miles west of the Sea of Galilee and has expansive views across the valley.

During the life of Jesus, this was an isolated agricultural village with few inhabitants. Some say that as few as 150 people lived here during the days of Christ. Some scholars conclude that Nazareth was founded in 100 BC by a clan from the line of David who was returning from exile in Babylonia. However, ancient sources do not speak at all about Nazareth; we only hear of it in the New Testament.

Nazareth is the place where the angel Gabriel announced the birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary in Nazareth. Mary and Joseph then left the village and returned with baby Jesus. Christ spent his childhood in Nazareth.


o   Church of Annunciation

A Byzantine church was built over the place where it is believed that the angel Gabriel announced the birth of Jesus to the virgin Mary.  In 1966 the Roman Catholic Church began constructing a new basilica over these remains and today this church is the largest church building in the Middle East.  The Greek Orthodox Church nearby is built over the town’s water source…




St. Gabriel’s Church and Mary’s Well, Nazareth

An Orthodox church built over Mary’s Spring and the nearby public fountain fed by the spring. The church dates from 1750 and the fountain structure is modern, but both are built over sites that have been revered since early Christianity


o   Cana of Galilee is a city near the Sea of Galilee and is also near Nazareth and is mentioned in the Bible for that is where we are told that Jesus did his first miracle. Now Cana is a village that is in the Galilean uplands and is west of Sea of Galilee. It is mentioned in John’s gospel only. We knew that Jesus had turned water into wine in Cana. Jesus had changed water into wine and had done this by water and his own word.  


Church of CANA

Cana’s Franciscan Church built in 1879 is on the ancient remains of the traditional site of that wedding reception. It features examples stone jars linked with the miracle. Here is something really interesting:

Tiberias (Sea of Galilee)- Jesus Minster


is the largest fresh-waterlake in the Holy Land, being approximately 53 km (33 miles) in circumference, about 21 km (13 miles) long, and 13 km (8 miles) wide. The lake has a total area of 166 km², and a maximum depth of approximately 43 m. At 209 meters below sea level, it is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second-lowest lake in the world after the Dead Sea, a saltwater lake.  Sea of Galilee is situated deep in the Jordan Great Rift Valley, The Sea of Galilee lies on the ancient Via Maris which linked Egypt with the northern empires. The Greeks, Hasmoneans, and Romans founded flourishing towns and settlements on the lake including Gadara, Hippos and Tiberias. The first-century historian Flavius Josephus was so impressed by the area that he reported a thriving fishing industry at this time, with 230 boats regularly working in the lake.

Much of the ministry of Jesus occurred on the shores of Lake Galilee. The Synoptic gospels of Mark (1:14-20), Matthew (4:18-22), and Luke (5:1-11) describe how Jesus recruited four of his apostles from the shores of Lake Galilee: the fishermen Simon and his brother Andrew and the brothers John and James. One of Jesus’ famous teaching episodes, the Sermon on the Mount, was given on a hill overlooking the lake whilst many of his miracles were also recorded to occur here including his walking on water, calming a storm, and his feeding five thousand people (in Tabgha).In the time of the Byzantine Empire, the lake’s significance in Jesus’ life made it a major destination for Christian pilgrims.


Tiberias City

Is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee. It was named in honor of Antipas’ patron, the Roman EmperorTiberius.Tiberias was built at about AD 20 by Herod Antipas, the son of Herod the Great on the site of the destroyed village of Rakkat, and it became the capital of his realm in Galilee. Christianity appeared in Tiberias in the 4th century. It spread rapidly through the efforts of a certain Joseph, Tiberias became a Christian community

The Jordan River

The Jordan River is the main source of water for the lake, supplying about 75 percent of the lake’s annual intake. Direct rainfall provides another 8 percent and the remainder comes from springs and wadis in the area. Numerous springs are located around the Sea of Galilee, particularly along the northwestern shore, but because of the higher salinity of these waters, today many of these springs are diverted to flow directly into the Jordan River south of the lake.

Jordan River, the great holy river of the Holy Land, rises in several headstreams near Mount Hermon in the mountains of Syria and Lebanon and flows more than 322 kilometers south through the Great Rift Valley to the Dead Sea. It is one of the world’s most remarkable rivers because of its association with Jewish and Christian history and the unique descent in its course from 79 meters above sea level to 391 meters below sea level. From ancient times the river has marked a dividing line between settled and nomad peoples.


Mt. of Beatitude

Located between Capernaum and Tabgha and is just above the “Cove of the Sower.”  The Mt. of Beatitudes overlooks the four-mile long Plain of Gennesaret, an area famed for its fertility.  Josephus said this plain was the location of “nature’s crowning achievement.”  Several times the New Testament records that Jesus was in this area including when he healed the multitudes here and faced Pharisaic condemnation for ritual impurity (Mark 6-7).

The mountain is topped by a Catholic chapel built in 1939 by the Franciscan Sisters with the support of the Italian ruler Mussolini.  The building which was constructed by the noted architect Antonio Barluzzi is full of numerical symbolism.  In front of the church, the symbols on the pavement represent Justice, Prudence, Fortitude, Charity, Faith and Temperance.  Inside the church hangs the cloak from Pope Paul VI’s visit in 1964. Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake” (Matt 5:3-11 KJV).



Church of Capernaum


Capernaum is frequently mentioned in the Gospels and was Jesus’ main base during his Galilean ministry. It is referred to as Jesus’ “own city” (Mt 9:1; Mk 2:1) and a place where he lived (Mt 1:13). He probably chose it simply because it was the home of his first converts, Peter and Andrew (Mk 1:21, 29).

Capernaum is where Jesus healed a centurion’s servant without even seeing him (Mt 8:5-13; Lk 7:1-10), Peter’s mother-in-law (Mt 8:14-15; Mk 1:29-30); the paralytic who was lowered thorugh the roof (Mk 2:1-12), and many others who were brought to him (Mt 8:16-17). And it was Capernaum that Jesus had set out from when he calmed a storm on the Sea of Galilee (Mt 8:23-27

Capernaum was originally a fishing village inhabited continuously from the 1st century BC to the 13th century AD. As the first town encountered by travelers on the other side of the Jordan, it was equipped with a customs office and a small garrison overseen by a centurion.

Capernaum was a Jewish village in the time of the Christ. It was apparently poor, since it was a Gentile centurion that built the community’s synagogue (Luke 7:5). The houses were humble and built of the local black basalt stone.

Christian presence is attested early in Capernaum and the village was predominantly Christian by the 4th century AD

Church of the Primacy of Peter, (Mensa Christi)


The Church of the Primacy of Peter is a modest Franciscan chapel that incorporates part of a 4th-century church. It is located at Tabgha on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee and commemorates Jesus’ reinstatement of Peter after a fish breakfast on the shore.In John 21, Jesus appears to his disciples for the third time after his resurrection on the shores of the Sea of Galilee. The night before, Peter and several other disciples had sailed out on the lake to fish, but caught nothing. In the morning, a man appeared on the shore and called out to them to throw their net on the right side of the boat. Doing so, they caught so many fish they couldn’t drag the net back into the boat.  The name of the Church as well as the art work inside it call to mind the Gospel narrative of the “First Miraculous Catch of Fish” along with the Calling of Peter and Andrew as Apostles (Matthew 4: 18-22 and Luke 5: 1-11). Most of the tradition for locating the first catch near Tiberias dates back to the year 1187. The very form of the early Crusader church was meant to commemorate this Gospel event. The Church of St. Peter had one nave and narrow windows similar to portholes. It represented the hull of an overturned boat, whose bow was visible on the outside of the apse. The Bark of Peter! A traditional symbol of the Church, whose head, the Roman Pontiff, heard the command of Christ saying “push out to the deep waters.”


Church of the Multiplication “7Springs”Heptapegon

The Church of the Multiplication of the Loaves and Fishes (also known as the Church of the Multiplication) is a church in Tabgha (ancient Heptapegon) on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee. The church is modern but stands on the site of 4th and 5th-century churches. It preserves a splendid early Christian mosaic as well as the traditional stone on which the miraculous meal was laid. The miraculous feeding of five thousand people is described in Mark 6:30-44, just before Jesus walks on water. The Gospel account of the loaves and fishes does not specify where it took place; only that it was in a “remote place” (6:32,35) on the shores of Galilee.Benedictanordwr


Capernaum Orthodox Church


The Orthodox church is built in the middle of the ruins of the ancient Roman village of Kfar-Nahum (Capernaum). Around the church the remains of the village have not yet been excavated, unlike the synagogue of Capernaum and the buildings around it. The area under the control of the Orthodox church is 1/3 of the entire ruins, which covers about 60 dunams (6 Hectares).


The village was established in the Hellenistic period, and was designed according to that period’s urban design of straight lines. The village prospered in the Roman and Byzantine periods.  It was destroyed in the Persian conquest in the 6th C AD


Golan Hights

“Golan” is the name of a city mentioned in the Bible as a “City of Refuge“. It has also come to denote a geographic region stretching from the biblical site westward towards the Sea of Galilee. Gaulanitis or Gaulonitis were also used in this context. The name “Golan” may be derived from the Kurdish word, Gul or plural Gulan, which means flowers.

That historic name has been applied over the past century to the geographic-geological volcanic plateau characterized by its basalt stone and its dark soil. This definition refers to the area bordered by the Jordan Valley to its west, the Yarmuk River to its south and the Sa’ar River to its north. The Sa’ar River divides the dark-soiled volcanic Golan and the distinct white limestone of Mount Hermon. The region’s eastern border with the Hauran is not clearly defined, though the Allan River and Ruqad River are sometimes considered. Additional names used in this context are Gaulan and Jaulan. The region also lent its geographic name to a breed of cattle native to the area, the Jaulan.

Mt. Hermon

Mount Hermon ‎, Jabal el-Shaykh,”mountain of the chief” and “snowy mountain”, is a mountain in the Anti-Lebanon mountain range. Its highest point is 2,814 m (9,232 ft) above sea level. This summit is on the border between Syria and Lebanon. Parts of the southern slopes fall within the Golan Heights, an area under Israeli occupation control since the1967.

The mountain is actually a cluster of mountains with three distinct summits, each about the same height. The Anti-Lebanon range extends for approximately 150 km (93 miles) in a northeast-southwest direction, running parallel to the Lebanon range on the west. The Hermon range covers an area of about 1000 square km, of which about 70 km² are under Israeli control. Most of the portion of Mount Hermon within the Golan Heights constitutes the Hermon nature reserve.

The mountain forms one of the greatest geographic resources of the area. Because of its height it captures a great deal of precipitation in a very dry area of the world. The Jurassic limestone is broken by faults and solution channels to form a karst topography. Mount Hermon has seasonal winter and spring snow falls which cover all three of its peaks for most of the year.



Is a city in the North District which has played an important role historically due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and Jezreel Valley. It has also played an important role in modern times.

BISAN or BeitShe’an’s location has often been strategically significant, as it sits at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley, essentially controlling access from the interior to the coast, as well as from Jerusalem to the Galilee. Its name is believed to derive from the early Canaanite “house of tranquility.

Bisan is first listed among Thutmose III‘s conquests in the fifteenth century BCE, and the remains of an Egyptian administrative center from the XVIII and XIX dynasties have been excavated. The Bible mentions it as a Canaanite city in the Book of Joshua, and its conquest by David and inclusion in the later kingdom is noted, and large Solomonic administrative buildings destroyed by Tiglath-pileser III were uncovered from this period. Its ninth century BCE biblical capture by the PharaohShishaq is corroborated by his victory list.

Jordan River

Meaning “Go Down” is a river in southwest Asia flowing to the Dead Sea.

Christianity: – Jesus was baptized here by John the Baptist.

251km long its course: – it drops 75km run rapidly to swampy lake Hula, slightly A.S.L

It drops 25km to the Sea of Galilee less gradient river meanders before the Dead Sea, about 422 meters B.S.L.


Tributaries: –

Habana (Snir) flows from Lebanon

Baines (hermon) arising from a spring at Banas foot Mt.Hermon.

The Dan source is the base at the Mt.Hermon

The Iyon(i00n) (Dardara) flows from Lebanon



o   Baptism Site

o   SHER’A Site


Hula Lake & valley

Location between Naftali ridges and the Golan

Is an agricultural region in Northern Israel with abundant fresh water. Covering an area 177km2 (25kmlongx6-8km wide)

It is planted with Reed, willow and papyrus trees.

It is an important bottle neck site for birds migrating along the Syrian-African rift valley between Africa, Europe, and Asia.

The Huleh Lake was a filter from the sea of Galilee and caused diseases such as Malarya; for this reason Arab Alghawarneh left the area to the Golan than VanmAeoi.

Borders :- West Naftali ridge, east Golan, North Ayun Valley that comes from Lebanon enters Hula Hene, South closed by a basalt ridge running from Mount cnan is efad Northwest to the Golan heights, known as plateau of Korazin, also the Basalt Plug, it limited the drainage of the Hula and the flow of the Jordan.

Prior to modern intervention, the valley had lakes and swamps ,3m in deth ,swamps 1.5m in depth, plants roots in water, leaves above water.

Lake131cm.swamp 251cm,another 251cm flooded in winter 400-800mm-year.Water also came from springs and meeting of rivers in the North.




Rosh Pinna corner Stone


Location:- on the eastern slopes of mount Cnan, north of the sea of Galilee, 2km east of Safed, 420m  above sea level.

North of Rosh Pinna is Lake Huls which was a swamp area drained in 1950. Currently it is a modern agricultural settlement; In the ancient Jewish Kabbalah tradition, Rosh Pinna is the site where the Messiah will appear at the end of the world.

Rosh Pinna was established near the Arab village of Al-Juana which existed until 1948.


Metula “El Mutallah”

located on the Israel-Lebanon border,6km north of QiryatShemona, located between the sites of the biblical cities of Dan, Abel Bet Maacah, and Jon, bordering Lebanon.

Traces have been found here including wine presses and a mosaic pavement; a tomb excavated in1967 contained at least 4 graves dating from between 3rd cent and late 6th cent.



Mt. Hermon – Jabal El Sheikh

Gray haired mountain, mountain of snow, the eyes of the nation is a mountain in the anti Lebanon mountain range its highest point is 2814m above sea level, this summit is on the border between Syria and Lebanon.

Parts of the Southern scopes fall within the Golan Heights an area under Israeli control since the June 1967 six –day war.

A ridge of 32 km long with three peaks.

The Hermon range covers an area of about 100km2,of which about 70 km2 are under Israeli control (Hermon Nature Reserve).

MizpheShlagim, snow lookout, IDF observation post, elevation 2224 M,2236m highest peak in Israel great deal of precipitin, Jurassic Limestone is broken by faults and solution channels to form Kans topography.


Seasonal inter 8 spring snow falls which cover all three of its peaks melt water from the snow covered mountains western and southern bases seeps in to the rock channels and pore, feeding springs at the base of the mountain which form streams and rivers.


Mt. Bental / Avital

Located in the Golan Heights; it is 1170m above sea level

It offers a rare and rewarding sight; its overlook is beautiful and provides stunning views; is a key strategic point for Israel due to its advantageous observation point.

In 1973 War, attacked the Golan with 1500 tanks and 1000 artillery pieces; Israel countered with 160 tanks and 60 artillery pieces; the long stretch of valley between Mount Bental and Mount Hermon became known as the valley of tears.

It was one of a series of Volcanic Mounds in the Northern Golan heights Volcanic Park.

Damascus is 601cm to the east.

The valley of Kunettra is right to the east of Bental.


Banias – Panias

-Is a nature reserve in the Golan Heights.

-The site know historically as Panias, is usually called Banias according to the Arab corruption of the name.

-At one end is the water fall while at the other end is the Banias spring which leads to the Hermon, or Snir river, begin at the foot of mount Hermon, become the Hermon river, loses 190 meters in alt over 3.5km, 9km further meets pan together flow to river Jordan.

-The Banias was supposedly a site of worship for Baal (Canaanite God)

-the name is derived from Pan, the God of shepherds, 3rd cent BCE, hellewistic, was half man and half goat, a player of music on reed pipes, and fond of taking the clothes of naked women while bathing at the spring. As soon as they came to pick up their clothes, they run in panic, a word came from Pan.

-Inscription in the rock Tabula Insata on both sides of the entrance of the Grotto are niches imply that it held statues of echo, the mountain Nymph , and Pan’s.


Additional sites:-Ancient bridge built during roman period, a destroyed flour mill, a hydro electric station, a water powered flour mill still used by two Druze villages with a bakery beside it also seem

20 BCE-area annexed toHerod Philip the great built a temple in honor of Zeus and Apollo. He named Banias Caesarea Philippi.

A palace for Agrippa II is nearby, taken later by crusader and mamluks

The palace has a corridor with a vaulted ceiling that has a cross shaped keystone. “QalatalSubayba”

Jesus foretold his disciples about his death and resurrection (Matthew 16:21-28) Peter confessed that Jesus is Christ son of the Living God, Jesus answered:”You are Peter, and on this rock, I will build my church”: Mat 16:18 added:-“ I will give you the keys of heaven” (Mat 16:19).

-Peter comes from Petros “Rock” perhaps Jesus was looking at the huge rock over the Grotto of Banias!!.


Naphtali Mountains and Ramin Cliffs

Are in a lovely forested area in the upper Galilee.700 meters above sea level

Provides a great view of the Golan Heights, the Hula Valley, as well as southern Lebanon.

The Hula Valley was formed by earthquakes four million years ago. While the hula Valley dropped , the Naftali ridge nearby collapsed in a series of fault lines. This geological phenomena can be seen from the geological trail.

Forests were planted in 1940s & 1950s. They suffered a lot of damage from fires in the hiking trails (paths) throughout the forest it also includes a deserted sandstone quarry near KiryatShomna.

In the autumn, the forest blooms with crocus and cyclamens (kind of Flowrs).

In the Bible- the district of Naphtali occupied a position on the north of the sacred tent of Dan and Asher. (Numbers 2:25-50; Joshua 19:32-39).

Zebulun in the south- Asher in west- Mannaseh is east.

Jesus spoke about this land, quoting from the prophet Isaiah (Matthew 4:15)

The mountain region, that forms the northern area of the territory of Naphtali. The land is similar to the hill country of Ephraim and Judah. (Joshua 20:7)


Nimrud’s Castel- Qala’at Al – Subetba- Castel Of the large cliff


Location on the access road from the Banias- NeveAtiv Road route 99

-Is a medieval for trees situated in the Northern Golan heights on a ridge rising about 800m above sea level

-The fortress was built around 1229 by Al-Aziz Utman,nephew of Saladin and younger son of Aladil I , to pre-empt any attempt on Damascus by the Sixth Crusader.

-called in Arabic Quala’At Al Subeba.

-1230: expanded to contain the whole ridge.

-1260:Baibars strengthen it and added large towers.

-given to Bilik,Baibars second on command made broad construction glorified the sultan in the 1275 inscription.


After the death of Baibars, his son arranged for Bilic to be murdered, fearing his power.

End of the 13th century following Moslem conquest on Akko and end of the crusaders rule in Holyland,the fortress lost strategic value 1291.

After the Ottoman Turks conquered the land in 1517, they used the fortress as a luxury prison for Ottoman nobles who had been exiled to Palestine.

The fortress was ruined by an earthquake in the 18th century

The Jews called it Nimrod Fortress, after Nimrod, a biblical figure hunter who according to tradition had lived on this summit.(Genesis10:8-9)

The entire fortress complex is 420m in length and 150m in width and is built of large, carefully squared stones.

Along the walls are numerous rectangular and semicircular towers, roofed with pointed cross arches.

Overlooking the high eastern edge of the fortress stood a large keep, measuring 65x45m and protected by massive rectangular towers.

The fortress overlooks the deep narrow valley separating Mount Hermon from the rest of the Golan heights, The road linking the Galilee with Damascus.



It was last stop in Palestine on the Turkish Line between Haifa & Damascus

-The site was occupied in the early bronze age (3150-2350 BC)

-C1 Strabo mentioned the waters noting that when animals taste it they lose their hair, hoofs, and horns.

-C2 Inhabitants of Gadara today Umqais on the summit of the hill to the south constructed baths over the hot springs. Origen commented on their fame, therapeutic qualities attracted clients from as far as Athens. Epithanius sourly comments” There the devil sets his snakes… since few 8 women bathe together”.

Battle of Yarmouk-20 Aug ….Muslim control over Palestine

Baths were severely damaged by earthquakes towards the end of Byzantine period.

Repaired by the Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah I (661-680)

No longer in use by the early 10 century

Frying Spring until 52 C – Roman bath- Leper’s Pool- Two oval pools- Largest pool opened to the sky- Service area

The Synagogue- located top of the tel, apse orientates the synagogue towards Jerusalem- one panel with two lions, the design of the mosaic floor is entirely geometrical. There are four inscriptions mentioning contributors. Dated to the 5th-6th cent – it rests over remains of earlier synagogue with Bima attach to south wall oriweted towards Jerusalem.

The roman Theatre- The fifteen rows of Basalt seats provided places for 5000 spectators.





The Bahá’í Gardens in Haifa »

These gardens, located in the heart of Haifa, comprise a staircase of nineteen terraces extending all the way up the northern slope of Mount Carmel. The golden-domed Shrine of the Báb, the resting place of the Prophet-Herald of the Bahá’í Faith, stands on the central terrace, looking across the bay towards ‘Akko.

While different parts of the gardens offer a variety of experiences, they speak in a common language of graveled paths, hedges and flower beds groomed and nurtured by dedicated gardeners. The gardens frame panoramic views of the city, the Galilee Hills and the Mediterranean Sea.


Acre – Akka

Also known as Acre, a city in the Western Galilee district of the north. It is situated on a low promontory at the northern extremity of Haifa Bay. From ancient times, Acre was regarded as the key to the Levant because of its strategic coastal location.

Acre is probably to be identified with the Aak of the tribute-lists of Thutmoses III (c. 1500 B.C.), and it is certainly the Akka of the Amarna letters. To the Hebrews it was known as Akko, but it is mentioned only once in the Old Testament,  as one of the places from which the Israelites did not drive out the Canaanite inhabitants. It had a stormy history during the three centuries preceding the Christian era.

Acre was ruled by the Greek, Roman, the Arab, the Crusades and by the Ottomans.

In 1799 Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but after a siege of two months (March–May) was repulsed by the Turks, aided by Sir Sidney Smith and a force of British sailors. Having lost his siege cannons to Smith, Napoleon attempted to lay siege to the walled city defended by Ottoman troops on 20 March1799, using only his infantry and small-caliber cannons, a strategy which failed, leading to his retreat two months later on May 21.

Akko Wall

In 1750, Daher El-Omar, the ruler of Acre, utilized the remnants of the Crusader walls as a foundation for his walls. They were reinforced between 1775 and 1799 by Jezzar Pasha and survived Napoleon‘s siege. The wall was thin: its height was 10 to 13 metres (33 to 43 feet) and its thickness only one metre (3 feet).

A heavy land defense wall was built north and east to the city in 1800-1814 by Jezzar Pasha (called by the locals Al-Jezzar). This wall is the first notable thing to come into sight when coming to Acre. It is a modern counter artillery fortification which includes a thick defensive wall, a dry moat, cannon outposts and three Burges (large defensive towers).

The sea wall, which remains mostly complete, is the original El-Omar’s wall that was reinforced by al-Jezzar.


Jezzar Pasha Mosque

The Mosque of Jezzar Pasha was built by Jezzar Pasha in 1781. The mosque is Caesarea Maritima: Jezzar Pasha and his successor Suleiman Pasha are both buried in a small graveyard adjacent to the mosque.

Turkish Bath

Hamam al-Basha

Hamam is a hot Turkish bath. Acre’s Hamam is notable mainly because it was used by the Irgun as a bridge to break into the citadel’s prison.

The Citadel

The current building which consists the citadel of Acre is an Ottoman fortification, built on the foundation of the Hospitallerian citadel. The citadel was part of the city’s defensive formation, reinforcing the northern wall.

Templers Tunnel


Is a town which has grown out of the historical Caesarea Maritima city (which is today on the outskirts of the new coastal city). It is located mid-way between Tel Aviv (45km) and Haifa, on the Mediterranean coast near the city of Hadera.

The modern settlement of Caesarea began in 1884, when Muslims from Bosnia built a small fishing village on the ruins of the Crusader fortress on the coast.

  • Herod’s Harbor

This site was insignificant until Herod the Great began to develop it into a magnificent harbor befitting his kingdom.  The harbor was built using materials that would allow the concrete to harden underwater.  The three-acre harbor would accommodate 300 ships, much larger than the modern harbor existing today. 

  • The Theater

Herod the Great also constructed a theater with a seating capacity of 3500.  According to Josephus, this is where the death of Herod Agrippa occurred, as recounted in Acts 12.  The theater was covered with a skin covering (vellum), and visitors probably brought cushions with them to soften the stone seats.

  • The Aqueduct

The lack of fresh water at Herod’s new city required a lengthy aqueduct to bring water from springs at the base of Mt. Carmel nearly ten miles away.  In order that the water would flow by the pull of gravity, the aqueduct was built on arches and the gradient was carefully measured.  Later Hadrian and the Crusaders would attach additional channels to Herod’s aqueduct.


Ram lake, Birkat Ram, High Pool, Maar Lake

Located on the outskirts of the Druze town of Masadeh high pool, due to its location in Northern Golan Heights surrounded by mountains 1000m above sea level its origins are a puzzle, Geoglistics believe it is collapsed crater of a volcano.

A legend about the pool beautifully weaves together geography and human nature a small hill near Birket Ram is known as Jebel Elsheikha “Hermonit”. The hill of the Shaikh’s wife while to the North raises majestic Mount Hermon. Nearly 7000 feet high and known as Jebel El Sheikh “The hill of the Sheikh”. After many years together, the legend says the sheikh stopped loving his wife, and Birket Ram is her eye filled with tears.

According to Talmud, Birket Ram is one of three underground springs, along with Hamat Gader in the south eastern Golan and Hamat in Tiberia that opened up in the flood of Noah and didn’t close up again after the flood.

Geology: – it is window into regional acquifer, created by Phaeatomagmatic eruptions sedimentary basement consists of Jurasic creatures, Eocene rocks, it is underlain by a depression with steep topography, the Ram Valley.

Elevation 1100m

Ateret Fortress- Vadum Jacob- Kasr Alatatrah:

Jacob’s Ford –templar’s built it from money collected by the Pope.

Location: – North, overlooking the crossing of the ancient road of the Via Maris with the Jordan River.

The well documented Castle was built and destroyed within eleven months October 1178- August 1179.

The decisive attack on the castle, commanded by Salah Eddin himself, commenced on 24 of August 1179.The defenders fought valiantly but failed to safe guard it.

The Muslims sappers succeeded in breaking through the walls and killing 800 of the 1500 defenders throwing their corpses into a deep well.

Arch logistics still make efforts in order to discover and excavate the deep well, into which, according to historical sources, the corpses of the Garrison were thrown.

Twenty three years later, at dawn, 20 of May 1202, a thundering earthquake tore the castle apart moving its easier half by 1.5 meters in comparison to its Western part.

The castle was torn apart by movement on a geological fault which crosses the site from south to north, bisects the castle.

The southern threshold of the castle of Fortress is not straight due to the transform fault of the Syrian – African rift valley i.e. the movement of the Eastern Plate of the Jordan to the North.

Jacob’s Ford – River crossing from central to Syria- Battle 1179, leprosy Baldwin the fifth and Salah Eddin crusades defeated.

Four Post Ad 1179 major earthquake are recorded by historical sources in Northern Israel. Ad 1202, 1546, 1759, 1837.